Well documented historical records are an elusive component of ancient manuscripts and artifacts. Provenance is a historian’s “best guess.”

There are three lines of “undocumented” evidence tracing the probable journey of the Shroud from Jerusalem to Edessa, Turkey (400-943), from Edessa to Constantinople (943-1204), then from Constantinople to Lirey, France (1204-1349).

“Undocumented” History: Pollen, Coins, Icons and Other Relics

  1. Testing of pollen samples by Dr. Max Frei.
  2. 1st century Roman coins on the eyes of the image on the Shroud.
  3. Striking similarities to the Mandylion, a relic from Edessa, with documentation from the 5th century.

For more on this, watch this video presentation by Fr. Spitzer. The video highlights five key pieces of scientific evidence regarding the Shroud’s authenticity and traces its likely journey from 1st century Palestine to its well-documented 1349 appearance in Lirey, France.

For a summary of a similar presentation, click here.

Chapter 3

Dating the Shroud of Turin


What is the Shroud of Turin?

Chapter 1

A Brief History of the Shroud of Turin

Chapter 4

The image on the Shroud of Turin

Chapter 5

FAQs & More Reading

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